What is knowlege 2016 revision biconditionality, contingency, necessity, sufficiency

Please download to get full document.

View again

All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
 4
 
  1. Biconditionality, Contingency, Necessity, Sufficiency Or: Being very precise about conditions for things 2. Today’s aim (s) ã To teach you some key terminology:…
Related documents
Share
Transcript
  • 1. Biconditionality, Contingency, Necessity, Sufficiency Or: Being very precise about conditions for things
  • 2. Today’s aim (s) • To teach you some key terminology: necessity, sufficiency, contingency, iff. • To begin to think about definitions of belief, truth, justification and knowledge.
  • 3. The Biconditional If(f) • Sometimes the word ‘if’ only conveys a loose connection between statements: “I will come with you to the pictures if you go on Friday”. But I could go with you to the pictures on another day. • However, if I say, “I will come with you to the pictures if, and only if, you go on Friday”, I am excluding other possibilities (such as going on Tuesday). • Philosophers call this if the ‘Biconditional If’ and spell it ‘iff’. Using ‘iff’ allows philosophers to specify conditions for things more precisely.
  • 4. If or Iff? 1. I will die if I stop breathing 2. I can make a hot cup of tea if I have hot water 3. I will pass my exams if there is a miracle 4. If I eat any more I will be sick
  • 5. Sufficiency,Contingency,Necessity Take the example of the statement, “I will grow up to be very fit if I exercise and eat sensibly”. • Might it be possible to be very fit without eating sensibly and exercising? • Are diet and exercise the only things that have a bearing on fitness?
  • 6. Contingency, Sufficiency, Necessity • If you can be very fit without a good diet and plenty of exercise, then these conditions simply aren’t necessary. They are contingent. • But if, amongst other conditions, I must follow a good diet and take exercise to be healthy, then these conditions would be necessary. • And if diet and exercise were the only conditions that had to be met, then these conditions would be sufficient.
  • 7. Why bother? • Because for philosophers interested in analysing a concept, only an exhaustive list of conditions for that concept to exist is good enough. • Philosophers like lists of conditions that are ‘individually necessary and jointly sufficient’. Because then these lists are really precise. • Necessity (needed, but not enough for) isn’t the same as sufficiency (the only thing(s) you need). • It is usually easy to think of necessary conditions. But very hard to think of sufficient ones. Try: defining what conditions must obtain for your smartphone to play music to your ears.
  • 8. To sum up • A condition is necessary when it must be the case for something to be true. But other conditions could be needed too. • A condition or set of conditions is sufficient when only those things and nothing else must occur for something to be true. • Precisely specifying conditions allows for precise definitions. • It can be very hard to specify sufficient sets of conditions.
  • Related Search
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks