The Renaissance

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  1. The Renaissance The Rise of Humanism in Europe 2. 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 2 3. 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 3…
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  • 1. The Renaissance The Rise of Humanism in Europe
  • 2. 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 2
  • 3. 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 3 Renaissance: Main Ideas • Occurred mainly in Italy 1300-1600 • Elite movement • Focused mainly on changes in art and learning • Tendency towards secularism contrasts religiosity of Middle Ages • 1860- Jacob Burkhardt argues Renaissance is a distinct break from Medieval life, contemporary historians (Burke) disagree
  • 4. Major Definitions • Renaissance French for “rebirth” describes a reawakening or rebirth of interest in the heritage of the classical past • Classical Past Greece and Rome (500 BC- AD 400) 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 4
  • 5. • Humanism reading and understanding of the writings of the classical past; Rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, and philosophy –Civic humanism (AKA Classical Humanism or Pagan Humanism) applying humanism to the political life of Italian city-states –Christian humanism focused on early church writing instead of secular authors 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 5
  • 6. • Individualism in the Renaissance sought great accomplishments and looked for heroes in history • Virtu the essence of being a person through showing humanist behavior through speech, art, politics, warfare, and seizing opportunity. Virtu is not morality 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 6
  • 7. Renaissance: Causes • Economic success of Northern Italian city-states from acting as middle men between East and Europe  growth of cloth industry and international banking • Struggles between Papacy and Holy Roman Empire  independence of many Italian city- states 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 7
  • 8. • Gov’ts of city-states often competed by supporting artists and scholars who ushered in new ideas • Northern Italian city-states often built on Roman ruins; Italians felt kinship to the past • Influx of new ideas from scholars fleeing falling Byzantine Empire 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 8
  • 9. Renaissance Literature • Dante (1265- 1321) The Divine Comedy describes a journey through hell, purgatory and heaven. Shows that reason will not substitute for faith. Uses strong symbolism. Represents pinnacle of Medieval poetry. Written in Florentine Vernacular. 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 9
  • 10. • Petrarch (1304- 1374) wrote in Latin and Italian; collected and preserved classical texts; helped define classical style; best known for sonnets. –Considered the father of Humanism 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 10
  • 11. • Boccacio (1313-1375) wrote The Decameron a collection of short stories in Italian about young lovers trying to flee the plague. Intended to amuse, not illuminate, the reader 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 11
  • 12. • Castiglione (1478- 1529) The Book of the Courtier defined the qualities necessary for gentlemen; included both intellectual and physical qualities; greatly influenced modern ideas on education and behavior 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 12
  • 13. Renaissance Art • Broke from the Medieval past in content and technique • Medieval art was idealized and used for religious purposes • Though Renaissance art was sometimes religiously themed it focused on secular themes and individuals 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 13
  • 14. Medieval V. Renaissance Art Medieval Art • Idealized forms used to educate a population unable to understand concepts • Utilized pointed arches, flying buttresses, fan vaulting • Attempted to portray the feeling of God Renaissance Art • Produced works celebrating individualistic and non- religious spirit • Copied classical, esp. Roman forms, arched, domes, columns, and squared angles • Focused on symmetry, perfection, and balance 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 14
  • 15. New Artistic Techniques • Linear Perspective • Contrapposto • Chiaroscuro 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 15
  • 16. 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 16
  • 17. Giotto • The Father of Renaissance Painting • 1266-1336 • Used light and shadow to create depth • 1306 The Pentecost 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 17
  • 18. Donatello • Father of Renaissance Sculpture • 1386-1466 • David was the first full size bronze sculpture since antiquity • Utilized contrapposto 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 18
  • 19. Masaccio • 1401-1428 • Emphasized naturalism in The Expulsion of Adam and Eve by depicting realistic human nudes in three dimensions and expressing emotions 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 19
  • 20. Leonardo da Vinci • 1452- 1519 • Numerous works included paintings and mechanical drawings • Studied the human body to create anatomically correct figures 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 20
  • 21. Raphael • 1483- 1520 • Master of Renaissance grace and technique • Applied perspective, pyramidal composition, chiaroscuro, and contrapposto to works such a The School of Athens 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 21
  • 22. Michelangelo • 1475- 1564 • Considered himself a sculptor above all else and used pyramidal construction, and emotion in crafting La Pieta The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel highlights his painting talents 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 22
  • 23. Scholars • Differed from Medieval scholars by seeking practical solutions and results, and not making judgments based on religion • Examined primary sources rather than relying on traditional interpretations • Played an active role in civic life 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 23
  • 24. Lorenzo Bruni • 1370-1444 • Civic humanist • Chancellor of Florence • First to write a history of the city • First to use the term humanism 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 24
  • 25. Lorenzo Valla • 1407-1457 • Wrote Elegances of the Latin Language which created modern rules for Latin Grammar • Exposed the forgery of The Donation of Constantine which ceded vast lands in Italy to the Papacy 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 25
  • 26. Machiavelli • 1469- 1527 • Analyzed politics from the standpoint of reason rather than faith or tradition in The Prince • His approach to politics is amoral • Discusses how to gain power and keep it 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 26
  • 27. The Renaissance Outside Italy • Less emphasis on classical antiquity • Greater emphasis and inspiration by and from religion; Christian humanism 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 27
  • 28. The Low Countries • Religious themes, but an exacting eye for details –Jan van Eyck (1385-1440) –Pieter Brueghel (1520- 1569) –Rembrandt van Rijn (1606- 1669) 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 28
  • 29. Jan van Eyck • The Arnoflini Marriage 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 29 •Statue of St. Margaret, patron saint of childbirth •Dog = fidelity •Oranges = fertility •Shoes= sacred rite •Mirror shows fine attention to detail
  • 30. Pieter Brueghel • The Wedding Dance 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 30 Appears to be a frivolous party, but has serious undertones. Details show bawdiness of activity
  • 31. Rembrandt van Rijn • The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 31
  • 32. Germany • 1450- Johannes Gutenberg develops the moveable type printing press • Hans Holbein • Albrecht Durer 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 32
  • 33. Han Holbein • 1497-1543 • The Ambassadors • Shows off skill with use of anamorphis 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 33
  • 34. Albrecht Durer • 1471- 1528 • Gave realism and individuality to the art of woodcutting as seen in The Last Supper 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 34
  • 35. Christian Humanism • Dominant outside of Italy • Looked to original sources of religious writing in Latin, Greek and Hebrew • Focused on providing guidance on personal behavior • Criticized the growing worldiness of the Catholic Church and urged reform from within; emphasized toleration and education 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 35
  • 36. Desiderius Erasmus • 1466- 1536 • Dutchman known as the Prince of Humanists • Known throughout intellectual circles for tolerance and restraint • Launched criticism against the Church and clergy he hoped would lead to reform • “Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched.” 16th century aphorism 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 36
  • 37. Thomas More • 1478- 1536 • Wrote Utopia (Greek for nowhere) describing a perfect society on a small coastal society • Mixed civic humanism with religious ideals • Portrayed gov’t as very active in economic life, society, education and health 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 37
  • 38. Jacques Lefevre d’Etables • 1454- 1536 • Leading French humanist • Wrote five versions of the Psalms which challenged the tradition of a single interpretation or religious tradition 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 38
  • 39. Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros • 1436- 1517 • Lead Spanish Church as Grand Inquisitor • Founded a university to teach Latin, Greek, and Hebrew • Reformed Catholic clergy preventing the Protestant Reformation from occurring in Spain later on 1/30/2015 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 39
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