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  1. PROPER POOL & SPA TESTING PROCEDURES 
INCLUDING THE USE OF STANDARDS TO VERIFY RESULTS By Ivars Jaunakais Pool Industry Expo - Thursday, September 27 / 1…
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  • 1. PROPER POOL & SPA TESTING PROCEDURES 
INCLUDING THE USE OF STANDARDS TO VERIFY RESULTS" By Ivars Jaunakais Pool Industry Expo - Thursday, September 27 / 1 – 3 PM
  • 2. Over 12 million pools and 5 million spa in the
 United States all require maintenance "
  • 3. TODAY’S TOPICS"  Different testing methods and techniques"  The Importance of Balanced Water"  Common pool water parameters and treatment"  Proper water quality testing techniques"  Using a Standard to verify testing method & reagents"
  • 4. FREQUENT TESTING IS VITAL"  Pools and Spas must be maintained in a conscientious way and testing is the first step"  Primarily for the safety of bathers"  Avoids Liability issues "  Proper and frequent testing practices reap financial rewards"  A must to keep pool balanced ""
  • 5. TESTING GOALS"  Happy customers "  Produce accurate, and reliable results"  Accurate results support correct maintenance, which saves you time (and money)"  The time saved will allow you to develop new customers, and you will have good reputation "
  • 6. MAINTAINING HEALTHY POOLS & SPAS REQUIRE"  Circulation"  Filtration"  Routine 
 Cleaning
 and Maintenance"  Testing pool water"  Testing make-up water or at least know what is quality of make-up water"
  • 7. POOLSIDE TESTING 
 CHALLENGES "  Poolside testing often performed under harsh environmental conditions"  Temperature, humidity, sunlight & wind can affect results & operator"  Distractions include poolside activity & noise"
  • 8. POOLSIDE TESTING 
 CHALLENGES "  Stability of some test reagents (especially liquid reagents) are affected by prolonged exposure to elevated Temperature & Sunlight "  Accurate results can be a challenge at pool-side"
  • 9. TO HAVE GOOD RESULTS TEST SHOULD BE: "  Acceptable or compliant 
 (i.e., Chlorine test uses DPD) "  Appropriate for staff technical ability"  Quality reagents & equipment that are reliable & stable"  Unaffected by interferences"  Accurate when staff performs test correctly"
  • 10. TEST METHODS
 CONSIDERATIONS
  " Cost per test varies ($0.02 to $0.30 up to $10)"  Time to run test (30 seconds to 5 minutes)"  Ease of use"  Level of operator training required"  Portability & stability of test kits & reagents "  Compliance testing requirements if testing public or commercial pools and spas (meets State Health Department approval)"  Verification of test with a test Standard meets your expectation "
  • 11. COLORIMETIC TESTS
 "Four basic photometric methods used in testing pool& spa water:"   1 Digital Photometer & Reagent which can be: liquid, powder, tablet, and reagent strip "   2 Colorimetric titration (counting drops)"   3 Comparator color test that uses a reagent which can be: liquid, powder, tablet, or reagent strip (test tube and comparator color chart)"   4 Test strips most for testing Free Chlorine, pH, Alkalinity, which now are available with reader or scanner devices"
  • 12. SUMMARY OF TESTING TOOLS"  Photometers & reagents"  Titration reagents "  Comparator Test"  Test Strips "
  • 13. TEST METHOD #1
 Photometer and Reagent
 (Most accurate method) !  Photometers use photometric or precipitation chemistries and the color (or precipitate) is measured by an Digital measuring instrument "  No visual color matching"  They measure transmission of light at a given wavelength through the reacted water sample"  Most accurate of all tests with 0.01PPM resolution"
  • 14. TEST METHOD #2 
 Colorimetric (visual) titration 
 Commonly used DPD method!  Titrations use colorimetric chemistries that use visual color change for determining concentration"  End point Color change can be difficult to judge "  Accurate counting of drops is required"  Technique dependent (swirling but on site mixers are now available)"  Math required"  For Chlorine 0.2 PPM and for Hardness 20PPM is typical resolution"
  • 15. TEST METHOD #3 
 Colorimetric reagent with color comparator
 
 "  Inexpensive reagents"  Gives only minimum resolution"  Reagents may have stability issues"  Requires good visual judgment"  Gives only 0.4 resolution for pH "  and 1PPM resolution for Chlorine"
  • 16. TEST METHOD #4 
 Test strips with 
 visual matching color chart "  Quick and easy"  Inexpensive"  Suitable for screening"  Good shelf life "  pH resolution of 0.4"  Poor chlorine resolution of 1 PPM"or greater""
  • 17. WATER BALANCE"  Defined as water that will neither scale nor corrode pool or spa surfaces and/or equipment"  Corrosion involves the dissolving or wearing- away of pool wall, pipes or equipment"  Scale is the white deposit or precipitate that builds up on fixtures, surfaces, & equipment "  Balanced water is non-irritating to eyes & skin of bathers, & allows sanitizer to work effectively "
  • 18. HEALTHY POOL WATER "You may start with BalancedWater but pool chemicals areintroduced that affect pH,Total Alkalinity, CalciumHardness, and TDS
  • 19. BALANCED POOL WATER "  Protects bathers health – prevent transmission of infectious disease, prevent skin irritation, respiratory problems, eye irritation; etc"  Protects Pool or Spa surfaces & Equipment from corrosion and/or scale-formation, & discoloration"  Minimizes potential Health hazards from disinfection by- products (combined chlorine)"  Maintains compliance with Health Dept regulations"" “Majority of pool problems are caused by poor water quality”""
  • 20. WATER BALANCE"  Healthy Water = Balanced Water"  For Balanced Water 6 things to consider (Components of Langelier Saturation Index) "   pH"   Total Alkalinity"   Calcium Hardness"   Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)"   Temperature"   Cyanuric Acid (CY)"  "
  • 21. Sources of Chemicals in Pool Water 
 "  Chemicals used to treat source or make-up water, including disinfection by-products, such as lime & alkalis, phosphates and for some chlorine treated systems, monochloramines"  Chemicals used to treat pool water - pH correction chemicals, sanitizers, oxidizers, stabilizer, chemicals for treating algae, mold, etc."  Bather’s sweat, urine, dirt, lotions, sunscreen, cosmetics, soap residues, deodorant, hair spray, etc."  Items introduced from environment such as debris, dirt, leaves , vegetation, etc., also contribute chemicals"  Disinfection by-products - trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, chlorate, nitrogen trichloride, etc."  Rain water"
  • 22. PARAMETERS THAT AFFECT WATER BALANCE
 "
  • 23. pH"  pH is most important factor"  Affects all other chemical / balance parameters"  Determines acidity of water "  Measured on a scale from 0-14 "  pH 7 is neutral"  Below 7 is acidic (e.g. lemon juice and coke)"  Above 7 is basic or alkaline (e.g. baking soda and concrete) "
  • 24. pH"  pH in the ideal range will be comfortable for human eye at 7.5"  Pool water pH is acceptable from 7.2 - 7.8 "  Ideal pH range is 7.4 - 7.6 "  Testing should be done DAILY!"  High pH reduces Chlorine’s effectiveness"
  • 25. pH "
  • 26. pH Testing Methods (resolution) "  Photometric(0.1)"  pH meter(0.01)"  pH comparator(0.2)"  Test Strips(0.3)"
  • 27. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) "  The measure of how much acid can be added to a liquid without causing a significant change in pH  Ability of water to resist a change in pH -“Buffering capacity”  Water with an appropriate amount of AL will resist wide & rapid fluctuations in pH (called pH bounce)  Bicarbonates, carbonates, & hydroxide in water  Proper AL stabilizes pH
  • 28. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) "  If AL is low, pH will be readily affected by anything introduced into pool "  If AL is high, pH will be difficult to adjust (water will scale) "  Total Alkalinity is key to water balance"  Recommended that it should be adjusted FIRST, even before pH"  Addition of acid or alkaline to adjust pool or spa Alkalinity will change pH, and vice versa"
  • 29. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL)
 "Low Alkalinity can cause:"  Wide & rapid pH fluctuations "  Corrosion of pool or spa & equipment "  Skin / Eye Irritation "  Cloudy water"  Adding acid such as Muriatic Acid will lower pH & Alkalinity"
  • 30. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) "  Because different sanitizers have different pHs, particular sanitizer used affects Alkalinity"  Ideal level is 80-100 ppm with sanitizers such as Sodium, Calcium, or Lithium Hypochlorite"  Ideal level is 100-120 ppm with sanitizers such as Dichlor, Trichlor, Bromine, or Chlorine Gas"  Maximum must be below 160 PPM"  NOTE: Parts per million (ppm) is equivalent to milligrams per liter (mg/L).
  • 31. TOTAL ALKAINITY 
 TEST METHODS (resolution) "  Photometric (1PPM)"  Titration (10PPM)"  Test Strips (40PPM)"
  • 32. ORDER OF pH & AL ADJUSTMENTS
  • 33. CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA) "  Defined as the amount of Calcium Salts in water (reported as Calcium Carbonate) "  Term Calcium Hardness used because hardness in tap water is due to Calcium"  Magnesium, barium & sulfate also can contribute to Hardness"  Source water used to fill pool will vary in its calcium content depending on region of country & whether city or well water"  Ideal range is 200-400 PPM"  Maximum of 1000 PPM ???"
  • 34. CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA) "
  • 35. CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA)
 "  Should be tested regularly"  Pool & spa water must have a certain amount of Calcium "  Calcium Hardness, when outside optimal range, can either allow corrosion to occur or cause scaling "  Make-up water with high calcium is “hard water”"  Make-up water with low calcium is “soft water” "  Low water hardness allows corrosion or pitting of calcium rich surfaces such as concrete, plaster, & grout "
  • 36. CALCIUM HARDNESS
 TEST METHODS (resolution) "  Photometric (1 to 5 PPM)"  Titration (20PPM)"  Test Strips (over 50 PPM)"
  • 37. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS
 (TDS) "  TDS is the total of all dissolved material in water" "  TDS value is contributed & influenced by ions of calcium, magnesium, sulfate, chloride, sodium, potassium, phosphate, nitrate, & all other ions; Alkalinity; Cyanuric Acid; & other chemicals present in water"  If it is dissolved in the water, it is part of TDS"
  • 38. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS
 (TDS) "High TDS levels may increase undesirable events:" 1.  Algae growth despite adequate sanitizer" 2.  Corrosion despite water being otherwise balanced" 3.  Cloudy water despite adequate filtration" 4.  Eye & skin irritation" 5.  Deposits on pool wall"
  • 39. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS
 (TDS) "  Over time, TDS will increase in a pool"  TDS may actually double in a year"  Why? - chemicals are added, debris & dirt blow or wash in, & water evaporates"  If TDS exceeds 1500 ppm of initial level, drain & replace at least some of water"  TDS maximum 3000 ppm ?? "
  • 40. TESTING TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS Should test MONTHLY using  Digital Conductivity meter ($20 - $900) (can do thousands of tests)  Test strips ($0.30 to $0.50 per test)  Maximum TDS is 1500 PPM over start-up TDS  Some professionals find 5000 PPM TDS in pool water is can be OK
  • 41. TEMPERATURE"  Temperature is a water balance factor but difficult to control"  Pool water is usually held at between 
 78-82◦ F. "  Spa water is held much higher at from
 96-104◦ F"  Test with digital or IR thermometer"
  • 42. SANITIZER AND DISINFECTANTS"  A disinfectant kills disease-causing organisms"  A sanitizer kills all microorganisms with impunity, (USA EPA 99.9% effective) i.e. , chlorine"  Oxidation refers to the “chemical reaction” that organic contaminants or waste products undergo " Because pool environment is constantly exposed to new contaminants, two important considerations:" 1.  Sanitize water to kill microorganisms" 2.  Oxidize organic contaminants"
  • 43. CHLORINE"  Chlorine is most popular sanitizer, disinfectant, algae killer, & oxidizer in the world"  Inexpensive, safe when used properly, & effective "  In a pool or a spa, chlorine pulls double-duty as a sanitizer & oxidizer"  Chlorine is most effective under certain conditions – The pH is most important factor & must be in optimal range in order for chlorine to be effective"
  • 44. pH VERSUS CHLORINE SPECIES
 " Percent HOCl and OCl- vs. pH 100 90Percent HOCl and OCl- 80 HOCl Hypochlorous Acid 70 60 HOCl 50 OCl- 40 30 OCl- 20 Hypochlorite Ion 10 0 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 pH
  • 45. CHLORINE  Effective against a broad range of microorganisms "  More than 79,000 tons per year are used in 
 United States & Canada to treat water "  Monitoring chlorine concentrations is very important "  Used in pools to protect bathers health, water clarity &
 equipment"  Inactivation of pathogens depends on contact time"  In USA Health Departments require public pools to" be routinely tested for chlorine concentration "
  • 46. GERM INACTIVATION TIME IN 
 1 ppm CHLORINATED WATER " GERM" INACTIVATION TIME"E. Coli O157:H7
 Less than 1 minute"Bacterium"Hepatitis A
 About 16 minutes"Virus"Giardia
 About 45 minutes"Parasite"Cryptosporidium
 About 15300 minutes
Parasite" (10.6 days)"pH 7.5, 77 F"
  • 47. SOURCES OF CHLORINE" Chemical
 Chemical
 Form" % Chlorine" Name" Formula" Chlorine Cl2 " Gas" 100%" Gas" Calcium
 Ca(OCl)2 " Solid" 65-70%"Hypochlorite" Sodium
 NaOCl " Liquid" ~12% "Hypochlorite"
  • 48. ABOUT SOURCES OF
 CHLORINE"  Despite their chemical & physical differences, they all form hypochlorous acid, or as more commonly know in the pool industry as Chlorine"  This change occurs when added to water"  Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the effective disinfecting agent "
  • 49. CHLORINE CHEMSTRY"  The sum of Hypochlorous acid (HOCI) and Hypochlorite ion 
 (OCI ¯) is called free chlorine, and the chemical equation or relationship is:
 
 "51
  • 50. HYPOCHLOROUS ACID REACTIONS"  Two chemical reactions impact the performance
 of Hypochlorous acid as a disinfectant:"  FIRST REACTION involves a hydroxide ion (OH¯) "  OH¯ is available in aqueous solution especially
 when pH level is above 7 which causes
 Hypochlorous acid to form Hypochlorite ion "  Hypochlorite ion is less than one third as effective a disinfectant as Hypochlorous acid"  The next slide shows the relationship between pH versus chlorine species (Hypochlorous acid and Hypochlorite ion) "52
  • 51. pH VERSUS CHLORINE SPECIES
 " Percent HOCl and OCl- vs. pH 100 90Percent HOCl and OCl- 80 HOCl Hypochlorous Acid 70 60 HOCl 50 OCl- 40 30 OCl- 20 Hypochlorite Ion 10 0 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 pH
  • 52. CHLORINE REACTION"  The SECOND REACTION is a series of chlorine reactions that occur with ammonia (NH3) & organic nitrogen compounds such as proteins & amino acids in the pool to form chloramines"  Chloramines are less effective disinfectants "  Active chlorine can be transferred from inorganic chloramine to amine (organic) containing compounds "
  • 53. BREAKPOINT CHLORINATION  The process which eliminates both the combinedchlorine and the ammonia problem responsible forcreating the chloramine is called BreakpointChlorination  In the pool industry its called “Shock” also called“Super-Chlorination” Shock is required daily, weekly or monthly anddepends on a variety of considerations55
  • 54. TOTAL CHLORINE  Total chlorine is the sum of free chlorine andcombined chlorine  Free chlorine and total chlorine are monitored byautomated equipment and confirmed by poolsidetesting for swimmer protection Total Chlorine = Free Chlorine + Combined Chlorine56
  • 55. EPA ACCEPTED
 CHLORINE TEST METHODS
 (FREE AND TOTAL)"  DPD photometric Digital Meter"  DPD-FAS Titrimetric "  DPD Colorimetric Comparator"  TMB Test Strip (visual but only for free chlorine)"
  • 56. DPD CHLORINE TESTING"  DPD methods have become preferred for chlorine measurement "  DPD methods determine concentration by measuring intensity of color formed when chlorine reacts with DPD "  DPD-FAS Titration method determines chlorine by measuring amount of FAS Titrant needed to bleach out DPD-chlorine color formed "  State health departments accept DPD tests because they are quick, enjoy wide acceptance & are US EPA approved"
  • 57. TOTAL CHLORINE (TC) = FREE CHLORINE (FC) + COMBINED CHLORINE   Combined chlorine = TC - FC   Free chlorine = 1.58 ppm (FC)   Total chlorine = 1.89 ppm (TC)   Combined chlorine = 1.89 – 1.58 = 0.31 ppm Combined chlorine is above the recommend level of 0.20 ppm and suggests pool needs to be shocked: in this example ( 10 X 0.31 = 3.1 ) this pool can be shocked by increasing the pool chlorine level by 3.1 ppm59
  • 58. CHLORINE TESTING"•  Test Frequency: Daily/ multiple times/daydepending on bather load"• Ideal is 2.0-4.0 ppm in a pool and 3.0-4.0 ppmin a spa"• High Chlorine level can cause Eye / skinirritation "• Low Chlorine level can cause Illness andDisease and Skin irritation from such as abacterial rash"
  • 59. COLORIMETER + LIQUID DPD POOLSIDE TESTING PROCEDURE"1.  Rinse out photocell 3 times with pool water"2.  Fill to 10 ml line with pool water sample"3.  Cap cell, wipe cell wall "4.  Place cell in colorimeter and zero meter"5.  remove cell and uncap"6.  add five drops of buffer DPD-1 solution"7.  add five drops of indicator DPD-2 solution"8.  cap cell and mix for a few seconds "9.  wipe cell wall "10.  place in colorimeter and read chlorine result"
  • 60. COLORIMETER + DPD-1 POWDER PILLOW POOLSIDE TESTING PROCEDURE"1.  Rinse out photocell 3 times with pool water sample"2.  Fill to 10 ml line with pool water sample"3.  Cap cell, wipe cell wall "4.  Place cell in colorimeter and zero meter"5.  remove cell and uncap"6.  Tear open powder pillow and add DPD-1 "7.  Cap cell and mix for 20 seconds "8.  Wipe cell wall "9.  Place in colorimeter and read chlorine result"
  • 61. COLORIMETER + DPD-1 TABLET POOLSIDE TESTING PROCEDURE"1.  Rinse out photocell 3 times with pool water sample"2.  Fill cell to 10 ml line with pool water sample "3.  Cap cell, wipe cell wall "4.  Place cell in colorimeter and zero meter"5.  Remove
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