Nutrition in adolescence

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  1. University of Kalamoon Nutrition Department Dr. Louay Labban 2. Puberty Early Middle Late adolescence adolescence adolescenceFemale 8-11 years 12-14 14-17 18-21Male…
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  • 1. University of Kalamoon Nutrition Department Dr. Louay Labban
  • 2. Puberty Early Middle Late adolescence adolescence adolescenceFemale 8-11 years 12-14 14-17 18-21Male 9-11.5 years 12-14 14-17 18-21
  • 3.  Nutrition needs should be determined by the degree of sexual maturation and biological maturity instead of chronological age . Unhealthy eating behaviors common among adolescence including frequent dieting, meal skipping, high consumption of foods high in fats
  • 4.  Concrete thinking and abstract reasoning abilities do not develop fully until late adolescence or early adulthood
  • 5.  Adjustment to a new body image, adaptation to emerging sexuality Concrete thinking, early moral concepts Strong peer effect
  • 6.  Establishment of emotional separation from parents Expansion of verbal abilities, adjustment to increased school demands Increased health risk behavior, sexual interests, early vocational plans
  • 7.  Personal identity, further separation from parents Complex thinking Increased impulse control, emerging social autonomy, vocational capability
  • 8.  50% of ideal body weight is gained during adolescence Growth spurt in 3-6 months Girls will gain approximately 18 lbs ( 8.3 kg ) year Weight gain slows during late adolescence, will gain around 14 lbs ( 6.3 kg )
  • 9.  Lean body mass falls from 80% to 74% Body fat increases form 16% to 27% During puberty, females experience 44% increase in lean body mass and 120% of body fat mass each year.
  • 10.  Males gain 20 lbs ( 9 kg ) per year during puberty Fat decreases in males during adolescence to reach 12% By age 18, more than 90% of skeletal mass has been formed A variety of factors contribute to the accretion of bone mass including genetics, hormonal changes, smoking and nutrition
  • 11.  Eating patterns and behaviors of adolescents are affected by many factors: Peer influence Parental modeling Food availability Food preference
  • 12.  Cost Convenience Personal and cultural beliefs Mass media Body image
  • 13.  Eating habits of adolescents are not static They fluctuate throughout adolescence in relation to psychological and cognitive development Adolescents lead busy lives Many involved in extracurricular sport or academic activities This leave little time to sit and eat meal Snacking or meal skipping are common
  • 14.  Almost all adolescents consume one snack per day ( range 1- 7 ) One study showed that adolescents ate 18.2 meals and 10.9 snacks in a week Snacks account foe 25% to 33% of daily energy intake Snacks consumption has risen during the past decade
  • 15.  The occurrence of meal skipping increases as adolescents mature Breakfast is the most commonly skipped meal 29% of female adolescents tend to eat breakfast Skipping breakfast can dramatically decreases intakes of energy, protein, fiber, Ca, and folate 25% of adolescents skip lunch
  • 16.  As adolescents mature, they spend less time with the family and more time with peer Eating away from home Females eat 1/3 of meals away from home Fast food accounts for 33% of food eaten
  • 17.  Eating at fast food restaurant has a direct bearing on the nutritional status of the adolescents Fast foods are high in fats Low in fiber and nutrients
  • 18.  Vegetarian diets are consumed in 1% of adolescents Vegetarian diets are consumed for many reasons Vegetarian adolescents found to be shorter and leaner than omnivores during childhood and early puberty age Menarche occurs 6 months later in vegetarian females
  • 19.  Vegetarian adolescents are taller or as tall as the omnivores but generally leaner When well-planned, vegetarian diets provide health benefit to adolescents such as complex CHO intake , high vitamin intake and protein With supplements from small amounts of animal foods such as milk and its products,
  • 20.  Vegetarian diets should include adequate fats and essential fatty acids ( DHA, EPA )
  • 21. Type of vegetarian diet Food excludedSemi- or partial vegetarian Red meatLacto-ovo-vegetarian Meat, poultry, fish, seafoodLaxctovegetarian Meat, poultry, fish, seafood and eggsVegan ( total vegetarian ) Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, dairy products ( may exclude honey )Macrobiotic Meat, poultry, eggs, dairy, seafood, fish ( fish may be included in some macrobiotic vegetarians)
  • 22. Food groups Lcato-ovo-vegetarians Vegans 11 years 11 years 2200-2800 kcal 2200-2800Breads, grain, cereal 9-11 10-12Legumes 2-3 2-5Vegetables 4-5 3-5Fruits 4 4-5Nuts, seed 1 4-6Milk, yogurt, cheese 3 0Eggs ( limit 3/week ) ½ 0`Fats , oils ( added ) 4-6 4-6Sugar ( added teaspoons ) 6-9 6-9
  • 23. Food source Alph-lenolenic acid, gFlaxseed, 2 tb 4.3Walnuts, 1 oz`` 1.9Walnut oil, 1 tb 1.5Canola oil, 1 tb 1.6Soybean oil, 1 tb 0.9Soybean, ½ cup cooked 0.5Tofu, ½ cup 0.4
  • 24.  Most diets do not match the dietary guidelines 1% of teens consume diets that meet the recommendations for all food groups 45% of teens meet recommendations for one group or more 7% of males and 18% of females adolescents do not meet any of the recommendations
  • 25. Male % Female %Dairy products 49 22Fruits 17 19Vegetables 50 46Grains 43 21
  • 26.  Increases in lean body mass, skeletal mass and body fat during puberty result in energy and nutrient needs that exceed those of any other point of life Energy and nutrient requirements correspond with the degree of physical maturation
  • 27.  Influenced by: Activity level BMR Increased requirements to support pubertal growth
  • 28.  Influenced by many factors RDA for protein intake is: 9-13 years old 0.95/g/kg/day 14-18 years old 0.85/g/kg/day When protein is inadequate, growth, sexual maturity delay and reduced accumulation of lean body mass
  • 29.  Primary source of energy From fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes 55-60% of total energy < 10% form sweeteners but adolescents consume about 16% of total energy for soft drinks
  • 30. Ounces per day Adolescents %> 26 oz per day 2213-25 oz per day 280.1 12 oz per day 320 oz per day 18
  • 31. Life-stage Calorie kcal Proteingroup grams Age, years Kcal/day Kcal/ cm Grams/day Grams/cmFemales 11-14 2200 14.0 46 0.29 15-18 2200 13.5 44 0.27 19-24 2200 13.4 46 0.28Males 11-14 2500 15.9 45 0.29 15-18 3000 17.0 59 0.34 19-24 2900 16.4 58 0.33
  • 32.  AAP Recommends 0.5 g/kg/day of fiber Or 15.5-34.5 g/ day for 10-18 years old males 16-28.5 g/day for 10-18 years old females National data shows consumption is: 11.5-15.4 g/day for males 10-14 g/day for females Because low intake of fruits and vegetables
  • 33.  Essential for growth and development National cholesterol education program NCEP recommends no more than 30% of total energy should come from fat < 10% from saturated fat DRI recommendations: 4-18 years old should consume 25-35% of total fats
  • 34.  Teens consume around 33% of total energy from fats Over 12% from saturated fats
  • 35.  adequate intake is important for growth and development Important for bone mass Females have the greatest capability of absorbing calcium at time of menarche then decreasing after By age 24 for females and 26 for males calcium accretion is almost nonexistent
  • 36.  DRIs for 9-18 years is 1300 mg/day Adolescents females consume 536-815 mg/day Adolescents males consume 681-1146 mg/day Milk is the best source followed by cheese, ice cream and frozen yogurt Consumption of soft drinks may displace the consumption of more nutrient dense beverages such as milk and fortified juices
  • 37.  Growth at this stage increases blood volume Menarche increases the need for iron
  • 38. Group Ca P Mg Vit D Iron B1 B2 B3 mg/d mg/d mg/d mcg/d mg/d mg/d mg/d mg/dMales 9-13 1300 1250 240 5 8 0.9 0.9 12 14-18 1300 1250 410 5 11 1.2 1.3 16Females 9-13 1300 1250 240 5 8 0.9 0.9 12 14-18 1300 1250 360 5 15 1.0 1.0 14
  • 39. Group B6 B9 B12 B5 B7 Vit A Vit C Vit E Se mg/d mg/d mg/d mg/d mcg/d mcg/d mg/d mg/d mcg/dMales9-13 1.0 300 1.8 4 20 600 45 11 4014-18 1.3 400 2.4 5 25 900 75 15 45Females9-13 1.0 300 1.8 4 20 600 45 11 4014-18 1.2 400 2.4 5 25 700 65 15 55
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