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  1. CONTENTS: What is facilitation? 1 Benefits of team facilitation ã Introduction 18 ã What is team? 1 ã Develop interpersonal skills 18 ã What is facilitation? 1…
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  • 1. CONTENTS: What is facilitation? 1 Benefits of team facilitation • Introduction 18 • What is team? 1 • Develop interpersonal skills 18 • What is facilitation? 1 • Provide experience 18 • Team facilitation. 1 • Eliminate conflicts 19 • Skills. Knowledge and capabilities • Create climate of cooperation 20 for facilitation in team. 2 • Create trust 20 Barriers of facilitation 2 • Quick decisions 21 • Causes of facilitation. 5 • Development of whole team 21 What facilitator do? • Early solution to problems 21 • What is facilitator 6 • Reduce time & cost 21 • Types of facilitator 6 • Superior results 22 • Skills of facilitator 6 • Clear sense of direction 22 • Role of facilitator 7 • Develop leadership qualities 22 • Understanding what facilitators • What the tam members get really do 7 out of it 22 • Competencies & characteristics 8 Strategies & steps to improve team • Be a good communicator 9 • Look for crime facilitator 9 facilitations 23 • Relationship building 24 • What is independent facilitator 11 • Improvement of Skills for facilitator communication in a copy 24 • Introduction 12 • Role of facilitator should be • Focusing the meeting 13 efficient 25 • Keeping the team on track 13 • Techniques for group work 25 • Types of skills 13 • Giving & receiving feedback 26 • Ground Rules 17 • Successful meetings 26 • Certain other major strategies 30 • An efficient team 30 • High performance teams 30
  • 2. Preface We use the term team when we refer to a group that has decided to work together for the purpose of accomplishing a task, or meeting a common goal. Every time the team members work together, there is a need for someone to help the team work efficiently. The main task of the facilitator is to help a team / group to work as efficiently as possible to accomplish the proposed tasks. The basic objective of team facilitation is leadership division.
  • 3. Summary: Facilitation" is a term that means different things to different people. . The facilitator's job is to lead the group process; to help them improve the way they communicate, examine and solve problems, and make decisions. Facilitators may work with small groups within an organization, or with representatives of different organizations who are working together in a collaborative or consensus-building process. The facilitator, in this context, may be internal or external. (That is, either way, he or she must be acceptable to all members of the group.Brought in from an outside organization). Facilitators must have a variety of skills and techniques to be effective. Strong verbal and analytical skills are essential. Facilitators must know what questions to ask, when to ask them, and how questions should be structured to get good answers without defensiveness A facilitator must also develop the ability to read and analyze group dynamics on the spot in order to guide the group They must also know how to rephrase or "reframe" statements to enhance understanding, and to highlight areas of agreement and disagreement as they develop. Other skills include redirecting questions and comments, giving positive reinforcement, encouraging contrasting views, including quieter members of the group, and dealing with domineering or hostile participants. It is the facilitator's role to help the group design its meetings in a way that is consistent with the core values of facilitation. Group members are often more motivated to support the decisions made because of their investment in the process. The best efforts of groups usually produce better results than individual efforts. Increased participation within the group increases productivity. It is possible for managers and leaders to draw more on their staffs as resources, which contributes to overall organizational success. Everyone involved has a chance to contribute and feels they are an integral part of the team.People realize and respect that responsibility for implementing decisions lies with everyone. Innovation and problem-solving skills are built. People are encouraged to think and act for the overall benefit of the group. Higher-quality decisions normally result. A forum for constructively resolving conflicts and clarifying misunderstandings is created. Negative attitudes, low morale, low involvement, and withholding of information are less likely because everyone is involved in a joint process. Facilitation is important because meetings of large groups of people can be very hard to organize as well as to control when they are in progress. First of all, a facilitator can help members of a group get to know each other and learn to cooperate. Having a skilled facilitator run or lead a meeting should also help focus the energy and thoughts of the various members on the task at hand Facilitation has become a more and more important communication skill in recent times. Many businesses and organizations have restructured, giving more power to a wider range of employees. Companies and organizations are relying more heavily on the input of individual employees in a broad variety of decisions.
  • 4. What is Facilitation? Introduction: We use the term team when we refer to a group that has decided to work together for the purpose of accomplishing a task, or meeting a common goal. Every time the team members work together, there is a need for someone to help the team work efficiently, so that it obtains the desired results as soon as possible, and that person is called facilitator. The main task of the facilitator is to help a team / group to work as efficiently as possible to accomplish the proposed tasks. What is Team? “Cooperative effort by the members of a group or team to achieve a common goal”. (American Heritage Dictionary) What is Facilitation? Facilitation is the art of leadership in group communication. A facilitator is one who fulfills this leadership role. These terms are often employed interchangeably with "moderating" and "moderator." Facilitation in both online and face to face settings aims to promote a congenial social atmosphere and a lively exchange of views. The online facilitator resembles his or her face-to-face equivalent in important respects. Here is how facilitation is described in one classic account (Hiltz and Turoff: 1978, pp 23-24): Team Facilitation: A process in which a neutral person (who is accepted by all group members and has no decision authority) helps the group identifies, solve problems and identify in an effective way. (Roger Schwarz) . Facilitation is generally associated with the activity of trainers and consultants, because it relies on shared skills and abilities – that of working with people (groups), and preparing and conducting group processes, and because it relies on a shared common goal – that of helping people find solutions to the problems they are facing and accomplish the tasks and goals of the group/ organization more easily and successfully.
  • 5. Although briefly stated, the task of the facilitator is a complex one, and that is why we intend to approach the facilitation activity in relation with the group processes it is supposed to help and conduct Skills, knowledge, and Capabilities for Facilitation in Team: • Being able to commit to a shared goal. • Being able to listen and respond to others. • Being able to take on different roles in groups in order to accomplish shared ends. • Being open and honest with one’s ideas, concerns and values. • Being able to be a leader as well as a follower. • Not carrying hidden agendas into team meetings. Barriers to Facilitation: Did you ever become a member of a new team and it was difficult for you to feel part of the group? • You didn’t know everybody, and some of the new faces didn’t make you feel comfortable • You feared you were not able to cope – everybody else seemed better informed and more sure of themselves than you • It was only with difficulty that you decided to say something Did you ever participate in team meetings in which things didn’t go enough smoothly? • You were not sure what the subject was because the discussion involved more subjects at the same time • You were not able to comment because some spoke all the time and wanted to show they knew it all • Initially you were a bit confused as to the subject of the meeting and you left having even more doubts about what you were supposed to do When you had to find solutions to a problem working a team did you discovered that it was a difficult process? • There were different opinions about how the issue should be approached which generated heated discussions. • Each wanted to impose his/her own ideas and didn’t seem interested in your ideas • You were not sure what were the items in respect of which there were differences in opinion because every one skipped from one issue to the other and talked at the same time • Although, personally, you did not agree with the adopted solution, you did not have the opportunity to express your point of view and in fact it was the majority that made the decision We are sure you have experienced in one moment of your life at least one of the aspects described above! Do you think there are solutions that eliminate or improve these aspects?
  • 6. Do you think someone could help us work more effectively in a group and avoid conflicting situations? We believe that this is possible and its solution is called facilitation and the person who does it is called a facilitator! But sometimes there are some barriers in facilitation which are likely to cause problems with the team/group. Apart from the above stated barriers/problems there are some other problems as well. These may be: Fears, Expectations, Motivations: The facilitator may expect the group to be silent, reserved and even display resistance. This atmosphere may be explained by the feeling of uncertainty created by the fears and questions that participants usually have when faced with a new situation, new people they don’t know. Here are some of the most frequent questions in the mind of team members during the first meeting: • What will happen during this meeting? • How do I look / behave compared to the others? Do the others know more than I do? • What if I don’t manage? Do I risk making a fool of myself? In conclusion, the general reaction is one saying: “I’d better say nothing until I understand what it’s all about!” Mission and Activities: If the facilitator is not responsible to help the team members understand the mission of the team, the activities that must be implemented and their calendar. There will be unclarity of the results and acceptance of the objectives to be achieved by the team will not be able to help everyone in the future to define his/her role and contribution to the expected results Work rules and Procedures: Unclear definition of these rules and procedures creates confusion and misunderstanding, the principal source of conflict for a team. The areas in which we consider it is useful to help the team clarify its rules and procedures are as follows: • How will decisions be made within the team (all decisions must be made by the group, or certain decisions may be delegated to sub-groups)
  • 7. • How does the team work: all activities are done within the group, or each member performs a task individually and then presents the results to the group, or the work is performed in sub-groups? • How do we solve the differences in opinion /disputes within the team? (Disputes between members may be solved outside the teamwork time, by appointing a mediator to help overcome differences, or allocating a specific time to analyze differences during team meetings) • How do we ensure that the team fulfills its tasks? (Some answers: establish realistic priorities and work plans, assign responsibilities only to those who have more time and energy to accomplish the tasks, appoint a person responsible to remind about the tasks and the deadlines) What do we do when we don’t manage to accomplish the plans? (Some answers: organize evaluation meetings and analyze results, identify actions that lead to an increase in efficiency and redo the action plans). Adjuring: Do not adjourn the first meeting without giving the group the opportunity to ask questions, and express their opinions about the meeting and its results. Verify whether there are other proposals to include issues on the agenda of the following meeting and establish the date, time and place for the next meeting. Know oneself and Members of the Team: Each member of the team has his/her own teamwork experience. It is useful for each member to evaluate his/her behavior within the group and be aware of the direction in which he/she wishes to adjust certain behaviors. This leads to increased tolerance of each member towards their partners in the team. Otherwise there will be many problems in the group. Lack of Communication: Whenever people are working in a group or as a team they have to communicate with each other to share their ideas and opinions and sometimes there is a lack of communication in a group/team and this element likely to act as a barrier to facilitation. Ambiguous Responsibility: There is a saying that everyone’s responsibility is no one’s responsibility. Therefore, an ambiguity in assigning responsibilities can be highly disastrous. In such a case there wouldn’t be any particular person answerable for the problem.
  • 8. Major Causes of Barriers: Opposing interests (or what we think are opposing interests) are at the core of most barriers. In a modern complex society, we confront these situations many times a day. The modern organization adds a whole new group of potential causes of barriers that are already present: • competition over scarce resources, time • ambiguity over responsibility and authority: • differences in perceptions, work styles, attitudes, communication problems, individual differences • increasing interdependence as boundaries between individuals and groups become increasingly blurred • reward systems: we work in situations with complex and often contradictory incentive systems • differentiation: division of labor which is the basis for any organization causes people and groups to see situations differently and have different goals • equity vs. equality: continuous tension exists between equity (the belief that we should be rewarded relative to our relative contributions) and equality (belief that everyone should receive the same or similar outcomes).
  • 9. Facilitator Facilitator is someone who skillfully helps a group of people understand their common objectives and assists them to plan to achieve them without taking a particular position in the discussion.The facilitator will try to assist the group in achieving a consensus on any disagreements that preexist or emerge in the meeting so that it has a strong basis for future action. Types of facilitators: Business facilitators: Business facilitators work in business, and other formal organisations but facilitators may also work with a variety of other groups and communities. It is a tenet of facilitation that the facilitator will not lead the group towards the answer that he/she thinks is best even if they possess an opinion on the subject matter. The facilitator's roles is to make it easier for the group to arrive at its own answer, decision, or deliverable. Training facilitators: Training facilitators are used in adult education. These facilitators are usually subject experts, however draw on the knowledge of the participants and then fill in any gaps. Training facilitators focus on the foundations of adult education: establish existing knowledge, build on it and keep it relevant. The role is different to the formal trainer who will take a more leading role and take the group through an agenda designed to transmit a body of knowledge. Skills: The basic skills of a facilitator are about following good meeting practices: timekeeping, following an agreed-upon agenda, and keeping a clear record. The higher-order skills involve watching the group and its individuals in light of group process and dynamics. In addition, facilitators also need a variety of listening skills including ability to paraphrase; stack a conversation; draw people out; balance participation; and make space for more reticent group members.It is critical to the facilitator's role to have the knowledge and skill to be able to intervene in a way that adds to the group's creativity rather than taking away from it. A successful facilitator embodies respect for others and a watchful awareness of the many layers of reality in a human group.
  • 10. The role of a facilitator: Some of the things Facilitators do to assist a Meeting: • Helping participants show up prepared to contribute • Codifying the purpose, scope, and deliverables of the meeting or workshop • Coming prepared with a variety of group facilitation and dialogue tools that the facilitator is skilled in and can employ in difficult moments • Keeping the group on track to achieve its goals in the time allotted • Either providing the group or helping the group decide what ground rules it should follow and reminding them of these when they are not followed • Reminding the group of the objectives or deliverables of the meeting or session • Setting up a safe environment where members feel comfortable contributing ideas • Guiding the group through processes designed to help them listen to each other and create solutions together • Asking open-ended questions that stimulate thinking • Tentatively paraphrasing or repeating verbatim individual contributions to confirm understanding and ensure they are heard by the whole group • Tentatively summarizing a recent part of the discussion • Recording agreements reached in large script on the wall so all can see and accept the wording • Recording the current issues within the group in large script on the wall using phrases agreed by the group • Offering a possible wording for an unspoken question that may currently beset the group • Ensuring the group doesn't settle for the first thing that they can agree on because they find it painful to go on disagreeing with each other • Offering opportunities for less forceful members to come forward with contributions • Ensuring that actions agreed by the group to carry out its decisions are written up in a large script on the wall for all to see and are assigned to individuals • Evaluating the performance of the meeting to assist in continuous improvement. Some things that Facilitators don't do: • Back a particular opinion voiced in the group • Offer their own opinions • Let the group unconsciously shy away from a difficult area • Lead the group towards what he/she thinks is the right direction Understanding What Facilitators Really Do: In this classic and oft referenced article, Robert Bacal offers some basic explanations about the role of facilitators in the modern workplace, and what they actually can do and bring to the table. In plain English, and a good primer for managers or human
  • 11. resources staff considering hiring a facilitator. Most people associate the word "facilitator” with the training environment. Often, that person at the front of the room leading a training sessions, is referred to as the course facilitator. While it is true that some seminar leaders do ”facilitate” the facilitation role is often important in other areas. For example, the chairperson at a meeting often takes on the responsibility for facilitating the meeting, rather than "running it". The government employee involved in mediation of disputes between other parties is also a facilitator. Human resources staff members often facilitate discussions in various contexts. And staff that work with groups of stakeholders and members of the public may be well advised to take on a facilitating
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