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  1. Human Behavior in Organization<br />Importance<br />Goals<br />Nature of People<br /> 2. Importance of HBO<br />its important to know how…
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  • 1. Human Behavior in Organization<br />Importance<br />Goals<br />Nature of People<br />
  • 2. Importance of HBO<br />its important to know how people, as individuals and as groups, act within organizations.<br />Goals of HBO<br /><ul><li>To describe
  • 3. To understand
  • 4. To predict
  • 5. To control</li></li></ul><li>The Nature of People<br />Individual Difference “Law of Individual Difference” <br />Perception<br />A Whole Person<br />Desire for involvement<br />Value of the Person<br />Motivated Behavior<br />
  • 6. Remember<br />“… organizational excellence begins with the performance of people…”<br />“…it is what people do or do not do that ultimately determines what the organization can or cannot become…”<br />“…it is our job as an I.E. to develop and promote behavioral patterns that are consistent with the achievement of goals…”<br />
  • 7. Study of Individual Differences in OB<br />
  • 8. Self<br />Self – Core of Conscious Existence<br />Self- Concept – Perception of one’s self<br />Self – esteem – Overall evaluation of one self. <br />Cognition – Person’s Knowledge<br />
  • 9. Self<br />Self – Efficacy – Belief in one’s self<br />Learned Helplessness – Debilitating lack of faith in one’s ability to control the situation.<br />Self- Monitoring – Observing one’s own behavior in adapting it to the situation.<br />Organizational Identification – Organizational Values or beliefs become part of one’s self – identity<br /> Self – Talk – Evaluating thoughts of oneself and one’s circumstances<br />
  • 10. Personality<br />Personality – Stable physical and mental characteristics responsible for a person’s identity.<br />Proactive Personality – Action- oriented person who shows initiative and perseveres to change things.<br />Internal Locus of Control – One’s own action<br />External Locus of Control – “Luck”<br />
  • 11. Emotions<br />Reactions to personal achievements and setbacks that may be felt and displayed.<br />Emotional Intelligence – Ability to manage oneself and interact with others in mature and constructive ways. <br />
  • 12. Values, Attitudes, Abilities and Job Satisfaction<br />
  • 13. Value System <br />The organization of one’s beliefs about preferred ways of behaving and desired end – estates.<br />Instrumental Values – Personally preferred ways of behaving. <br />Terminal Values – Personality preferred end- states of existence. <br />
  • 14. Value Conflicts<br />Intrapersonal Value Conflict – outside social expectation and internal priorities.<br />Interpersonal Value Conflict – core of personality conflicts.<br />Individual – Organization Value Conflict <br />
  • 15. Handling Value Conflict through Values Clarification<br />Career- Counseling and Team- building<br />Using handful of useful experiences.<br />
  • 16. Work – Family Conflict<br />Gender inequality<br />Work Flexibility<br />Time Management<br />
  • 17. Attitude <br />Learned predisposition toward a given object.<br />Affective Component – The feelings or emotions one has about an object or situation.<br />Cognitive Component – The beliefs or ideas one has about an object or situation.<br />
  • 18. Attitude<br />Behavioral Component- How one intends to act or behave toward someone or something. <br />Intentions affects our Attitude.<br />
  • 19. Job Satisfaction<br />An affective or emotional response <br />Organizational Commitment – Extent to which an individual identifies with an organization and its goals. <br />Job Involvement – Extent to which an individual is immersed in his or her present job. <br />
  • 20. Abilities and Performance<br />Ability – Stable characteristic responsible for a person’s maximum physical or mental performance. <br />Skills – Specific capacity to manipulate objects. <br />Intelligence – Capacity for constructive thinking, reasoning, problem- solving. <br />
  • 21. Cognitive Styles<br />A perceptual and judgmental tendency, according to Jung’s Typology. <br />
  • 22. Job Satisfaction<br />Need Fulfillment<br />Value Attainment – extent to which a job allows fulfillment of one’s work values<br />Equity – fair treatment at work<br />Genetic Components/ Disposition<br />Discrepancies <br />Met Expectations – the extent to which one receives what he or she expects from a job. <br />
  • 23. Major Correlates and Consequences of Job Satisfaction<br />Organizational Citizenship Behaviours - Employee behaviors that exceed work-role requirements. <br />Withdrawal Cognitions – Overall thoughts and feelings about quitting a job. <br />Absenteeism<br />Turnover<br />Perceived Stress<br />Job Performance<br />
  • 24. Motivation<br />
  • 25. The issue is how to motivate your people!<br />… Motivate people towards excellent performance! It is our primary task as managers…<br />The question is WHAT IS MOTIVATION?<br /><ul><li>It refers to the WHY and CAUSE of behavior.
  • 26. Motivation is the strength of the drive towards an action.</li></li></ul><li>Basic Motivation Model<br />Ability<br />Goal<br />Needs and Drives<br />Rewards<br />Performance<br />Tension<br />Effort<br />Needs Satisfaction<br />
  • 27. Influence of Culture<br />Self esteem or Amor-propio<br /> -sensitive to words or actions of others<br />Embarrassment or Hiya<br /> -behaving in what is deemed to be an acceptable way<br />Obligation or UtangnaLoob<br /> -repaying favors<br />Getting Along Together or Pakikisama<br /> -SIR (smooth Interpersonal Relations) that may lead to inefficiencies<br />
  • 28. Three Patterns of Motivation<br />Achievement Motivation<br />Affiliation Motivation<br />Power Motive<br />
  • 29. Needs Satisfaction<br />Why do we have to satisfy their needs?<br />They behave in order to satisfy their needs!<br />
  • 30. Needs Satisfaction Approach to Motivation<br />Behavior<br />Internal needs<br />Outcome<br />Needs Satisfaction<br />
  • 31. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs<br />
  • 32. Physiological Needs<br />Safety and Security Needs<br />Love and Social Needs<br />Esteem and Status Needs<br />Self-actualization or Self-fulfillment Needs<br />“…a satisfied need is no longer a motivator!...”<br />“…as one need is satisfied, another need emerges…”<br />
  • 33. Clayton Alderfer’s ERG Model<br />
  • 34. Existence: Physiological and safety needs<br />Relatedness: Social and external esteem needs<br />Growth: Self-actualization and internal esteem needs<br />
  • 35. Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory(Two Factor Theory)<br />Need to Avoid Pain<br />Hygiene Factors<br /><ul><li>Job Context
  • 36. Extrinsic Factors
  • 37. Dissatisfies</li></ul>Examples<br /><ul><li>Company policy
  • 38. Quality of supervision
  • 39. Relations with supervisors, peers, & subordinates
  • 40. Pay, job security, status
  • 41. Work conditions</li></ul>Need for Achievement <br />Motivational Factors<br /><ul><li>Job Content
  • 42. Intrinsic Factors
  • 43. Satisfies</li></ul>Examples<br /><ul><li>Achievement
  • 44. Recognition
  • 45. Work itself
  • 46. Responsibility
  • 47. Advancement
  • 48. Growth</li></li></ul><li>Behavior Modification<br />Positive Reinforcement<br />Negative Reinforcement<br />Punishment<br />Extinction<br />Reinforcement Guidelines<br />Specify behavior to be reinforced.<br />Reinforce specified behavior at once.<br />Reward small achievements as well.<br />Provide material as well as nonmaterial incentives.<br />Offer small rewards<br />Reinforce at intermittent intervals<br />
  • 49. Activities<br />Expectancy theory<br />Expectancy probability<br />Instrumentality probability<br />Valence<br />Case studies<br />
  • 50. Group and Work Behavior<br /><ul><li>Elements of a Group
  • 51. Types of a Group
  • 52. The Importance of Groups in Work Organization
  • 53. Limitations of Group and Group Work
  • 54. Group Development
  • 55. Group Structure
  • 56. Group Goals</li></li></ul><li>Elements of Group<br />What is a Group?<br />“…Common interests and goals binds the members of a group…”<br />How do we differentiate a group into an individual and an organization?<br />
  • 57. Types of Group<br />Formal Group<br />Informal Group<br />
  • 58. Group Formation <br />Formal Group<br />Informal Group<br />Formal Group<br />Informal Group<br />
  • 59.
  • 60. Importance of Groups in Work Organizations<br />“…social needs are among the most compelling, potent and powerful on-the-job motivators…”<br />“…changing group opinion is more effective than changing opinions of individuals…”<br />
  • 61. Limitations of Group and Group Work<br />…do you agree that most innovation and creativity are done not by groups but by individuals alone?…<br />Deindividuating Effects<br />Majority Rule<br />Groupthink<br />Free Riding<br />
  • 62. What is the main justification of a group’s existence?<br />Goals!<br />
  • 63. World of Organizational Behaviour<br />
  • 64. Organizational Behavior<br />Interdisciplinary field dedicated to better understanding and managing people at work. <br />1. The Human Relations Movement<br />2. The Total Quality Management Movement<br />3. The Internet Revolution<br />
  • 65. The Human Relations Movement<br />Began in 1930’s<br />To focus on the “Human Factor” <br />Bettering the Working Conditions for the Workers and Managers.<br />Studied the Carrot and Stick Method<br />
  • 66. The Total Quality Management Movement<br />Started in 1980’s<br />Patterned in Japan<br />An organizational culture dedicated to training, continuous improvement of organizational processes and customer satisfaction. <br />Seminars, Researches, New Trends, Quality of the Products, Customer Service<br />
  • 67. Principles of TQM<br />Do it right the first time to eliminate costly rework and product recalls.<br />Listen to and Learn from customers and employees.<br />Make continuous improvement an everyday matter.<br />Build Teamwork, Trust and Mutual Respect.<br />
  • 68. The Internet Revolution<br />Internet – The global system of networked computers<br />E- Commerce – buying and selling goods and services over the internet<br />E- Business – Running the entire business via the internet. <br />E- Management<br />E- Communication – E-mails, Cellphones with internet.<br />
  • 69. Management and Culture<br />
  • 70. MANAGEMENT <br />Process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives efficiently and ethically. <br />
  • 71. CULTURE <br />Beliefs and values about how a community of people should and do act. <br />
  • 72. Management and Culture<br />Describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values (personal and cultural values) of an organization. <br />It has been defined as "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization."<br />
  • 73. Corporate Culture<br />“…is the total sum of the values, customs, traditions and meanings that make a company unique. Corporate culture is often called "the character of an organization" since it embodies the vision of the company’s founders…”<br />“… The values of a corporate culture influence the ethical standards within a corporation, as well as managerial behavior…”<br />
  • 74. Men That Classified Organizational Culture<br />GeertHofstede<br />Deal and Kennedy<br />Charles Handy<br />Edgar Schein<br />Arthur F Carmazzi<br />
  • 75. Gerard HendrikHofstede October 3,1928<br />an influential Dutch writer on the interactions between national cultures and organizational cultures, and is an author of several books including Culture's Consequences.<br />Hofstede's study demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behaviour of societies and organizations, and that are very persistent across time.<br />Hofstede looked for national differences between over 100,000 of IBM's employees in different parts of the world, in an attempt to find aspects of culture that might influence business behavior.<br />
  • 76. Hofstede identified five dimensions of culture in his study of national influences:<br />Low vs. High Power Distance- the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.<br />Individualism vs. collectivism- refers to the extent to which people are expected to stand up for themselves and to choose their own affiliations, or alternatively act predominantly as a member of a life-long group or organization.<br />Masculinity vs. femininity- 'masculine' cultures value competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition, and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions, whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life.<br />Uncertainty avoidance- reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. <br />Long vs. short term orientation- describes a society's "time horizon," or the importance attached to the future versus the past and present. <br />
  • 77. Deal and Kennedy<br />“…defined organizational culture as the way things get done around here…”<br />Feedback - quick feedback means an instant response. This could be in monetary terms, but could also be seen in other ways, such as the impact of a great save in a soccer match.<br />Risk - represents the degree of uncertainty in the organization’s activities.<br />
  • 78. Four Classifications of Organizational Culture:<br />The Tough-Guy Macho Culture. Feedback is quick and the rewards are high. This often applies to fast moving financial activities such as brokerage, but could also apply to a police force, or athletes competing in team sports. This can be a very stressful culture in which to operate.<br />The Work Hard/Play Hard Culture is characterized by few risks being taken, all with rapid feedback. This is typical in large organizations, which strive for high quality customer service. It is often characterized by team meetings, jargon and buzzwords.<br />The Bet your Company Culture, where big stakes decisions are taken, but it may be years before the results are known. Typically, these might involve development or exploration projects, which take years to come to fruition, such as oil prospecting or military aviation.<br />The Process Culture occurs in organizations where there is little or no feedback. People become bogged down with how things are done not with what is to be achieved. This is often associated with bureaucracies. While it is easy to criticize these cultures for being overly cautious or bogged down in red tape, they do produce consistent results, which is ideal in, for example, public services.<br />
  • 79. Charles Handy (born 1932)<br />is an Irish author/philosopher specializing in organizational behavior and management. <br />popularized the 1972 work of Roger Harrison of looking at culture which some scholars have used to link organizational structure to organizational culture. <br />
  • 80. Power Culture which concentrates power among a few. Control radiates from the center like a web. Power Cultures have few rules and little bureaucracy; swift decisions can ensue.<br />Role Culture, people have clearly delegated authorities within a highly defined structure. Typically, these organizations form hierarchical bureaucracies. Power derives from a person's position and little scope exists for expert power.<br />Task Culture, teams are formed to solve particular problems. Power derives from expertise as long as a team requires expertise. These cultures often feature the multiple reporting lines of a matrix structure.<br />Person Culture exists where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization. Survival can become difficult for such organizations, since the concept of an organization suggests that a group of like-minded individuals pursue the organizational goals. Some professional partnerships can operate as person cultures, because each partner brings a particular expertise and clientele to the firm.<br />
  • 81. 4- P Cycle of Continuous Improvement<br />
  • 82. People<br />Skill Development<br />Motivation<br />Teamwork<br />Personal Development and Learning<br />Readiness to change and adapt<br />Increased personal responsibility for organizational outcomes<br />Greater self- Management<br />Decreased Stress<br />
  • 83. People ( Skills Profile)<br />Human Capital – The Productive potential of one’s knowledge and Action.<br />Social Capital- The productive potential of strong, trusting and cooperative relationships. <br />
  • 84. How are you going to have a Productive Team?<br />
  • 85. The 21st – Century Managers<br />Customer- Centered Manager<br />People Oriented Manager<br />Not EGO CENTERED MANAGERS!<br />
  • 86. Products<br />Greater Customer Satisfaction<br />Better Quality goods and services<br />
  • 87. Processes<br />Technological Advancement <br />Faster Product Development and Production cycle times<br />System flexibility<br />Leaner and more effective administration<br />Improved communication and information flow<br />Organizational Learning<br />Participative and Ethical decision making<br />
  • 88. Productivity <br />Reduced waste<br />Reduce Rework<br />More efficient use of material and informational resources<br />
  • 89. The Manager’s Job: Getting Things Done through O
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