Clasical civilizaions

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  1. Classical Civilizations China India The Mediterranean 2. Classical China Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties Zhou Dynasty  Confucianism – Family, filial piety, harmony,…
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  • 1. Classical Civilizations China India The Mediterranean
  • 2. Classical China Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties Zhou Dynasty  Confucianism – Family, filial piety, harmony, 5 relationships Qin Dynasty  Shi Huangdi – Centralized power, standardized writing, Great Wall Han Dynasty  Wu Ti (Wudi) – Created government based on Confucianism
  • 3. China: Political Institutions China had the longest running continuous government in the world Political institutions (Confucian) were made up of the emperor, and educated professional bureaucracy
  • 4. China: Religion and Culture Emphasis on education Three major philosophies – Confucianism: ethical system based on relationships and personal virtue – Legalism: favored an authoritarian state and harsh rule – Taoism: harmony with nature and simple living Art was mostly decorative, included calligraphy
  • 5. China: Economy and Society Classical economy focused on agriculture Sharp class division (merchants at bottom) Extensive internal trade Technological advances like ox-drawn plows, water powered mills, and paper Patriarchal with strong emphasis placed on family Limited outside contact
  • 6. Classical Indian Civilization Maurya Gupta
  • 7. Framework for Indian History and Geography Geography- protects and fosters growth Aryan culture dominated India after the fall of the Indus Valley, introducing the basics of the caste system Vedas, Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Upanishads formed basis of Aryan literary tradition
  • 8. Patterns in Classical India Two major periods – Maurya (Chadragupta Maurya/ Hinduism) – Gupta (Ashoka/ Buddhism) Greek conquest (Alexander the Great  cultural diffusion Gupta = Golden Age of the Hindu
  • 9. Political Institutions in India Central authority weak due to regionalism and political diversity Increasingly complex caste system promoted public
  • 10. Religion and Culture in India Hinduism: Both religious and social role in society Stress on reincarnation, dharma, karma, and shallowness of material world Buddhism founded by Siddhartha Gautama – Important in Gupta Empire – Has greater impact in East Asia than in India
  • 11. Indian Economy and Society By 100 BCE India had – Written language – Large cities – Art and literature – Two great world religions – Significant advances in Math and Science Society dominated by the caste system Society both patriarchal and patrilocal
  • 12. Indian Influences India played an important role in cultural diffusion, linking Asia to the Mediterranean world
  • 13. China and India Different political, social, and philosophical traditions Both have stable structure over long period of time
  • 14. Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean World Greece Rome
  • 15. Patterns of Greek and Roman History Based on tradition of tolerance to local customs, organized military, and advanced artistry found in the Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great
  • 16. Greek History: – Rise of dynamic city-states – Golden Age of Athens and Pericles – Peloponnesian Wars  decline of Athens and Sparta – Conquest and expansion under Alexander the Great – Rise of Hellenistic Civilization Blends Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and INdian
  • 17. Rome emerges as a new power as the Hellenistic world declines – Defeats Carthage in Punic Wars – Republican government – Expands into an empire under Julius Caesar – 250 years of slow decline after the Pax Romana
  • 18. Greek and Roman Institutions The greatest legacy of Greece and Rome are in the areas of Law and Government Both emphasized rule by an aristocracy with significant democratic elements – Athens: direct democracy – Rome: Senate – Rome adds the Twelve Tables, basis for most modern law systems
  • 19. Greek and Roman Religion and Culture Limited lasting religious impact Christianity emerged in territory under Roman control Philosophy: rationalism, humanism
  • 20. Greek and Roman Economy and Society Mirrored many social features found in traditional agricultural society – Large peasantry – Land-owning aristocracy Patriarchal Slavery
  • 21. Effects of the Fall of Rome Trade declines East= Byzantium West= collapse, dark ages that lead to Medieval times
  • 22. Expansion and Integration Common theme= territorial expansion and efforts to integrate new territory into existing empires China unites through political centralization India unites through religion Mediterranean World united through cultural achievements
  • 23. Beyond Classical Civilizations The Americas and Africa also develop classical civilization, though due to global interactions they have less of an impact on later regional developments Nomadic societies continued to challenge the borders of classical civs and often led to periods of trouble or collapse
  • 24. The World Around 500 BC Development of three major themes for world history – Societies across Eurasia had figure out how to revive and rework themselves following nomadic invasions – Establishment of almost all major world religions – Trade and war lead to the rise of new civilization
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